The success of national movements in Europe depends on two factors: (1) the presence of patriots who start the national action and (2) mass-support for this action. With respect to the first factor there are three preconditions for national agitation: the impact of traditional, religiously inspired values and on baroque patriotism, the crisis of old identities and the heritage of enlightened patriotism. The preconditions regarding the second factor are: sufficient social communication (incl. literacy, market relations, social mobility) and the possibility to transform the conflict of interests into a national conflict. Of some importance were also "external factors", like political regime and international conditions dominated by the interests of the superpowers.